segunda-feira, 23 de abril de 2012
The Real Meaning of Initiation
Devotee: Can you explain the real meaning of diksa, initiation?
Sridhara Maharaja: Srila Jiva Goswami has explained this in his Bhakti Sandarhha (868):
divyam jnanam yato dadyat
kuryat papasya sanksayam
tasmad dikseti sa prokta
Experienced scholars have explained the meaning of diksa, or spiritual initiation, in this way: diksa is the
process through which transcendental knowledge is imparted by the preceptor to the disciple. As a result, all the
disciple's previous bad tendencies are crushed. Through diksa, all previous commitments are cleared, and one
gets the light of new life in relationship with the transcendental Lord. Diksa, or initiation, is a process by which
we are given a noble connection with the absolute center and at the same time, our previous commitments are
all finished. It is an inner awakening of life that brings divine knowledge. That wealth is there within us, but it is
suppressed. Diksa means discovering one's inner wealth, and getting relief from all outward obligations.
With inner awakening, the outward commitments vanish, just as when you reach home, all other arrangements
you may have contracted for your comforts are all cut off, for at home you find full comfort. When we are in a
foreign land, we may seek the comforts which are supplied in hotels, but when we reach home, the hotel
comforts are discarded; we find no more use for them. Sometimes a minor is kidnapped from home. Later, while
visiting his native place he may stay in a hotel, but if he suddenly finds his father's house, and returns home, his
parents will recognize him and say, "O, my son! You were stolen from us when you were young. We recognize
your face. I am your mother, this is your father, here is your sister." Then the hotel is no longer needed. In a
similar way, with the inner awakening of the soul, when we return back home, back to Godhead, we will find our
comfortable home with Krsna. So, to make a connection with our real home and dispense with our outward links
is known as diksa.
Mantra: The Spiritual Formula
Devotee: What is the difference between siksa, or spiritual instruction, and diksa ?
Srila Sridhara Maharaja: Diksa mainly involves initiation into the mantra, the spiritual formula. Other
instructions are necessary to substantiate it, to help it become effective. Certain activities are also helpful.
These are all parts and parcels of initiation. So, a general direction is given by diksa, but how to substantiate
that? Details are necessary. In the Srimad-Bhagavatam (7.5.23-24) it is said,
sravanam kirtanam visnoh
arcanam vandanam dasyam
iti pumsarpita visnau
bhaktis cen nava-laksana
"Hearing about Krsna, chanting Krsna's glories, remembering Krsna, serving Krsna's lotus feet, worshipping
Krsna's transcendental form, offering prayers to Krsna, becoming Krsna's servant, considering Krsna as one's
best friend, and surrendering everything to Krsna- these nine processes are accepted as pure devotional
service." All these things are advised; a thousand details may be necessary.
Initiation: Spiritual Invasion
If a general plans to invade another country, he must first chalk out his strategy of attack in a broad way. When
he goes to practically execute his plan, so many obstacles appear, and he has to solve them and march on. If
one plans to travel, first he conceives of the whole plan in a nutshell: "From this foreign land, I will return home
by this route." But to carry out the plan in practice, so many details are necessary. First it is chalked out in a
rough plan, and then he must practically do so many things. First he must hire a taxi, then he has to go to the
airport to purchase a ticket for the plane-in this way, so many details are required. So, from partial knowledge,
we have to develop final knowledge. This detailed knowledge is known as siksa.
Devotee: What is the position of a devotee, who although not yet fully free from the influence of maya, accepts
disciples on the order of Srl Caitanya Mahaprabhu and his spiritual master?
Srila Sndhara Maharaja: It is better that a man who begins business with small capital has a connection with a
wealthier capitalist. Then he can prosper in his business. In a similar way, as long as one is not completely
established in Krsna consciousness, he must have some connection with superior aid. Then he will be safe. If we
are to fight face to face with maya, illusion, help from the higher agency should be our only resource.
It is very difficult to control maya. Krsna says in Bhagavad-gita (7.14):
daivi hy esa gunamayi
mama maya duratyaya
mam eva ye prapadyante
mayam etam taranti te
"My illusory energy is impossible to overcome. Only one who surrenders to me can cross beyond it." Maya
dreads only Krsna, for she has her backing from Him. If you attempt to cross maya alone, it will be impossible.
You must have some higher connection. And with the help of that connection you can overcome illusion. Maya
will withdraw only when she sees that you have the backing of higher potency. Alone, you cannot fight and gain
victory over maya. It is impossible, because wherever you go, you are within the boundary of maya, illusion. It
may be more or less intense, but it is all maya. Only when you really come in touch with the plane above maya
can you fight against maya; only then will maya withdraw. We must have some shelter beyond maya from
where we can fight with illusion. We are advised to take shelter of sadhus, saints, and sastra, scriptures. Their
help comes from above, and we must accept that help from the inner core of our hearts.
Accepting Disciples and Karma
Devotee: It seems that those who accept disciples have to undergo some physical difficulty or suffering because
of accepting the karma of their disciples.
Srila Sridhara Maharaja: Physical difficulty should not be considered. And physical success also should not be
considered of much value. One should not think that if a guru has a large number of disciples he is great.
One may voluntarily accept the responsibility of the spiritual life of so many disciples, but find that their
improvement is not satisfactory. As a result, he may experience some disturbance. He may think, "I have taken
charge of their lives, but I am not able to give them the desired improvement in their spiritual life." That is a
good symptom. The Vaisnavas have no trouble for themselves, but they are troubled for others (para-duhkha
duhkhi). In his prayer to Sanatana Goswami, Srila Raghunatha Dasa Goswami writes that Sanatana Goswami
was always distressed upon seeing the distress of others. A Vaisnava has no mental trouble for himself, but he
feels mental trouble when he sees the pain of others. It is difficult for a Vaisnava to tolerate. They are always
sympathetic to the misery of others. This is the qualification of the intermediate devotee. He has no trouble of
his own, but he is troubled by the pain of others. An intermediate devotee cannot ignore these things.
The spiritual master will have to digest some of the responsibility of the bad and undesirable activities of the
disciple. He has the responsibility of managing them by his instruction. When a doctor has accepted a patient,
and the patient is in pain, the doctor may feel some trouble in his mind: "l have taken charge of this patient, and
I can't remove his difficulty." In this way, he may feel some voluntary responsibility.
The spiritual master may experience different kinds of suffering in different stages. Sometimes a guru may feel,
"I am doing as much as I can to help this disciple." Such a guru does not take so much responsibility for his
disciple. He thinks, "I am doing my duty," and treats his disciples with this openness of mind. It is just as in the
case of the consulting physician and the family doctor. The family doctor cannot shake off the responsibility of
caring for his patients, but a doctor from outside may say, "If you like, you may engage another doctor." The
consulting physician is not so much earnest for the patient. He may feel, "I am not perfect, I cannot make him
pure immediately. Whether he improves is God's will. I can only do my best." From the beginning of their
relationship, just as a doctor may approach his patient with this attitude, the guru may approach his disciples.
The question of how much responsibility the guru takes for the disciple is a question of the attitude he takes
towards his disciples in particular cases.
Devotee: Does the disciple's advancement depend more on the guru or on his own efforts? How will the disciple
make proper advancement in following the principles of his guru?
Srila Sridhara Maharaja: That depends on the stages of realization of the disciple. Exclusive devotion must
come from the disciple towards the guru. It is said in the Svetasvatara Upanisad (6.23):
yasya deve para bhaktir
yatha deve tatha gurau
tasyaite kathita hy arthah
"The key to success in spiritual life is unflinching devotion to both the spiritual master and Krsna. To those great
souls who have full faith in both Krsna and the spiritual master, the inner meaning of the scriptures is fully
revealed." The guru is Krsna's representative. We are in search of divinity, and so, we must try to concentrate
all our energy wherever we find a real connection with divinity. That is the key to success, because Krsna is
all-conscious. So, the response to our devotional efforts will come from Krsna according to our attentiveness to
Him. He is everywhere. In the conception of infinite, everywhere there is center, nowhere is there circumference.
In every point there may be the center. Prahlada Maharaja saw the center present everywhere. Hiranyakasipu
asked him, "Is your God in this pillar?" Prahlada replied, "Yes. He is there." And when Hiranyakasipu demolished
the pillar, Lord Narasimha came out.
Guru-Absolute and Relative
Devotee: Can you explain this concept of the absolute and relative position of the spiritual master?
Srila Sridhara Maharaja: By the special will of Krsna, gurudeva is a delegated power. If we look closely within
the spiritual master, we will see the delegation of Krsna, and accordingly, we should accept him in that way. The
spiritual master is a devotee of Krsna, and at the same time, the inspiration of Krsna is within him. These are the
two aspects of gurudeva. He has his aspect as a Vaisnava, and the inspired side of the Vaisnava is the guru.
On a fast day like Ekadasi, he himself does not take any grains. He conducts himself as a Vaisnava, but his
disciples offer grains to the picture of their guru on the altar. The disciples offer their spiritual master grains even
on a fast day.
The disciple is concerned with the delegation of the Lord, the, guru's inner self, his inspired side. The inspired
side of a Vaisnava is acarya, or, guru. The disciple marks only the special, inspired portion within the guru. He is
more concerned with that part of his character. But gurudeva himself generally poses as a Vaisnava. So, his
dealings towards his disciples and his dealings with other Vaisnavas will be different. This is
acintya-bhedabheda, inconceivable unity in diversity.
There may be imitation, and there may be deviation. Both are possible. For ulterior motives, one may make a
trade of guruship, just as in the case of the caste goswamis and the sahajiya imitators. For some reason or
other, one may pose as a guru, but the symptoms of a real guru are given in the scriptures: sabde pare ca
nisnatam brahmany upasamagrayam: "A bona fide spiritual master must be conversant with the conclusions of
the Vedic literature, fixed in realization of the Supreme Truth." (Srimad Bhagavatam 11.3.21).
Scriptures Need Saints
Anyone can say, "I am guru, he is not guru ." Imitation is always possible, but the scriptures give the criterion
for the selection of a real guru, and the real guru will extract the meaning of the scripture. Guru and sastra are
interdependent. One will help another for our edification. The scriptures say we must read the scripture under
the guidance of a proper professor, a Vaisnava guru (acaryavan puruso veda ). So, the scripture is dependent
on the spiritual master. And who is a spiritual master? The scriptures will explain. So they are interdependent:
sadhu and sastra are both necessary. They are the active and the passive agents.
Devotee: Can you explain why Krsna appears in so many different gurus? Why must Krsna appear again and
again? Can't we leam everything we need to know just by reading Bhagavad-gita ? What is the need for
constant revelation? Don't the old books contain all the truths we need to know?
Srila Sridhara Maharaja: In Srimad-Bhagavatam, Krsna says, "First I transmitted Vedic knowledge to this world
through Brahma. And that was entrusted to his disciples: the four Kumaras, Marichi, Angira, and other sages.
The knowledge was first invested in them and later in books.
First it was presented in the form of sound, not script. Gradually it became fixed in writing. In the beginning, it
descended directly through sound from one man to another, from lip to ear. No script or writing was invented at
that time, but knowledge was contained in the form of sound. Passing through the ear to the mouth, and again
to the ear of another, gradually it became lost. In connection with the mediator sometimes it becomes lost and
disfigured, distorted, and then again the Lord feels the necessity of appearing in this world (yada yada hi
Sometimes Krsna comes himself, and sometimes he sends a normal thinking man to reinstate the standard of
true religion. Krsna says, "This karma yoga that I have spoken to you, Arjuna, I spoke first to Surya, and from
Surya it was passed down from generation to generation. And so it has become mutilated and disfigured. Again
I am speaking that very same thing to you today." The enervating plane gradually erodes the truth. The truth is
bright when it first appears, but gradually with the contact of this enervating plane, it becomes weak, disfigured,
and demoralized, and so Krsna appears from time to time to rejuvenate it, and bring about a renaissance.
Devotee: Is there any difference between an acarya and a guru?
Srila Sridhara Maharaja: Guru and acarya are the same but generally it may be said that an acarya does
more extensive work. And also the acarya must have extensive knowledge of the scriptures, whereas the guru
may not have expressly deep knowledge of scripture, but may have real knowledge of their purport. He may not
be able to quote scripture extensively, but feels the meaning of the scriptures. He may be a guru. But an acarya
is one who preaches widely and is able to extensively quote scriptural evidence.
Marketplace of Gurus
Devotee: There are so many imitation gurus in the guise of Vaisnavas who are simply out to cheat the innocent
public. How can we know who is a real guru and who is a cheater? How do we know when we are being given
real knowledge and when we are being cheated?
Srila Sridhara Maharaja: We have to find out what is the source of his knowledge. In the marketplace there
may be imitation gold, but if we are sure that the gold we are purchasing is coming from a particular mine, we
can buy it, with the assurance that it has not been tampered with on the way. In that way it can be understood:
by examining the source.
Once, here in India, Gandhi wanted to revive the cherka system of homespun cloth. In the cherka system, the
poor produce thread with a spinning wheel, and if everyone buys that cloth, called khadi, then the money goes
to the pockets of the poor. But the Japanese and English cloth factories sent imitation "homespun" khadi here.
They began manufacturing rough cloth, imitating the ordinary homespun cloth produced here by the poor.
Gandhi found himself perplexed, "What is this?" he said. "My need is that the money go to the poorest pocket,
but now the capitalists are producing imitation rough cloth abroad, and that is being sold here in India. Instead
of money going to the poor here in India, it is going to the foreign capitalists." Then he founded one association,
the Khadi association, and told his followers, "You must purchase homespun cloth only from those shops who
are connected with this association of mine. Then the money will surely go to the pockets of the poor." At that
time he said, "This is guru parampara, the system of disciplic succession." Of course, this a crude example.
Revealed truth coming uncontaminated through a particular process is parampara. We must connect with a
reliable succession. Only then can we get the genuine thing. The authorized association is necessary, guru
parampara is necessary. So, before we read anyone's book, we shall try to find out who is his guru, and from
where the substance is coming down. Is it only a facade, or is there any real substance within? If we can
understand that he has a relationship with a genuine sadhu, then we can give some attention to him.
I often give the example of the homeopathic globule. The mere globule itself has no medicinal value. The
potency is within. An ordinary guru may give the same mantra to his disciple, but what is the potency within the
sound? What quality of conception or divine will is contained in that sound? That is all-important. To get the
mantra from a sad guru, a genuine guru, means to get the internal good will or real conception about the Lord.
The seed of a banyan tree may be a small seed, but the great big banyan tree will come from that seed. The will
with which the particular sound is given by the guru to the disciple is all-important. We may not trace that at
present, but in time, if a favorable environment is there, it will express itself and develop into something great.
So, when we go to purchase anything, we must be careful about imitations, or else we may be deceived